A Journey Through Moscow

Tverskaya Street (Russian: Тверская улица), known as Gorky Street (Russian: улица Горького) between 1935 and 1990, is the main and probably best-known radial street in Moscow. The street runs Northwest from the central Manege Square in the direction of Saint Petersburg and terminates at the Garden Ring, giving the name to Tverskoy District. The route continues further as First Tverskaya-Yamskaya Street, Leningradsky Avenue and Leningradskoye Highway.
The Neglinnaya River (Russian: Неглинная), also known as Neglinka, Neglinna, Neglimna (Неглинка, Неглинна, Неглимна), is a 7.5-km long underground river in the central part of Moscow and a tributary of the Moskva River. It flows in the tunnels under Samotechnaya Street, Tsvetnoy Boulevard, Neglinnaya Street and Alexander Garden and Zaryadye. The Neglinnaya discharges into the Moskva River through two separate tunnels near Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge and Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge.
Arbat Street (Russian: Арба́т), mainly referred to in English as the Arbat, is a pedestrian street about one kilometer long in the historical centre of Moscow. The Arbat has existed since at least the 15th century, which makes it one of the oldest surviving streets of the Russian capital. It forms the heart of the Arbat District of Moscow. Originally the street formed part of an important trade-route and was home to a large number of craftsmen. In the 18th century the Russian nobility came to regard the Arbat as the most prestigious living area in Moscow. Almost completely destroyed by the great fire of 1812 associated with Napoleon’s occupation of Moscow, the street required rebuilding. In the 19th and early 20th centuries it became known as the a place where petty nobility, artists, and academics lived. In the Soviet period, it housed many high-ranking government officials.
Marx Avenue (Russian: Проспект Маркса) is a highway in the center of Moscow, named after Karl Marx, that existed from 1961 to 1990. The avenue had a curved shape and went around the Kremlin from Dzerzhinsky (Lubyanskaya) Square to Borovitskaya Square. It was made up of three historical streets: Teatralny Proyezd, Okhotny Ryad and Mokhovaya Street. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the General Plan for the Development of Moscow provided for the connection of Marx Avenue with the Ostankino Television Center by building a high-speed highway with the conditional name “Northern Ray”. It was planned to include Neglinnaya Street, Tsvetnoy Boulevard, Soviet Army Street and Sheremetyevskaya Street into the highway. The project was not implemented.
The Boulevard Ring (Russian: Бульва́рное кольцо́) is Moscow’s second innermost ring road (the first is formed by the Central Squares of Moscow running along the former walls of Kitai-gorod). Boulevards form a semicircular chain along the western, northern and eastern sides of the historical White City of Moscow; in the south the incomplete ring is terminated by the embankments of Moskva River. The first of the boulevards, Tverskoy Boulevard, emerged in 1796, but the ring was completely developed in 1820s, after the disastrous 1812 fire. The Ring replaced the medieval walls of the White City in the 1820s. The wall itself was razed in 1760, and despite the royal decrees to keep the site clear, the area was soon built over with private and state property. The Fire of Moscow destroyed many of those buildings, allowing the city planners to replace them with wide green boulevards. In the 20th century, the width of the Boulevard Ring was expanded, as the formerly paved areas along the Pokrovsky Boulevard and Strastnoy Boulevard were planted with trees. Plans to complete the ring through Zamoskvorechye never materialized, however. These plans to properly terminate the ring through Yakimanka and Zamoskvorechye districts, proposed in 1935, periodically resurface in city planners’ discussions.
Zamoskvorechye District (Russian: райо́н Замоскворе́чье) is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia. The district contains the eastern half of historical Zamoskvorechye area (its western half is administered by Yakimanka District), and the territories of Zatsepa Street and Paveletsky Rail Terminal south of the Garden Ring. The boundary between Yakimanka and Zamoskvorechye districts follows Balchug Street and Bolshaya Ordynka Street (north of Garden Ring), Korovy Val and Mytnaya streets (south of Garden Ring).
Khamovniki District (Russian: Хамо́вники) is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia. Population: 102,730 (2010 Census); 97,110 (2002 Census). The district extends from Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge into the Luzhniki bend of Moskva River; northern boundary with Arbat District follows Znamenka Street, Gogolevsky Boulevard, Sivtsev Vrazhek and Borodinsky Bridge. The district contains Pushkin Museum, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Devichye Pole medical campus, Novodevichy Convent and memorial cemetery, Luzhniki Stadium. The stretch of Khamovniki between Boulevard Ring and Garden Ring, known as Golden Mile, is downtown Moscow’s most expensive housing area.
Myasnitskaya Street (in the 16th-17th centuries – Frolovskaya Street and Evplovskaya Street, in 1918-1935 – Pervomaiskaya Street, in 1935-1990 – Kirov Street) – a street in the Central Administrative District of Moscow (Basmanny and Krasnoselsky districts). It runs from Lubyanskaya Square to Sadovaya-Spasskaya Street. The numbering of houses is carried out from Lubyanka Square. On December 14, 1935, by a resolution of the Moscow City Council, the street was renamed Kirov Street in memory of a prominent figure in the Communist Party, Sergei Mironovich Kirov, on the basis that the body of the murdered Kirov was transported along Myasnitskaya Street for burial on Red Square.
Leninsky Avenue (Russian: Ле́нинский проспе́кт) is a major avenue in Moscow, Russia, that runs in the south-western direction between Kaluzhskaya Square in the central part of the city through Gagarin Square to the Moscow Ring Road. It is a part of the M3 highway which continues from Moscow to Kaluga and Bryansk to the border with Ukraine, and provides connections with Kiev and Odessa. It is also a part of the European route E101 connecting Moscow and Kiev. It is the second widest street in Moscow after Leningradsky Avenue. Its width varies between 108 and 120 metres.
Luzhniki (Russian: Лужники) is a Moscow toponym associated with several localities and settlements; currently designates the southwestern part of the Khamovniki district, which became part of Moscow in 1917. As part of the Konyushenny order there were horse settlements: Big Luzhniki and Small Luzhniki. The area, which is now called Luzhniki, was formerly called Luzhniki Small Novodevichi, and at the first mention, in 1638, the settlement Small Luzhniki under the Novodevichy Convent. In 1654, the inhabitants of Luzhniki began to build the wooden church of St. John Chrysostom near the shore and built it “up to the upper platform; and by the will of God there was a pestilence”, the unfinished church “was taken to the Kuznetsk settlement”. In the same place in 1701, the Church of the Tikhvin Icon of the Mother of God was built. In 1955, all buildings between the Okruzhnaya railway and the river were demolished for the construction of a sports complex.
The Yauza (Russian: Я́уза) is a river in Moscow and Mytishchi, Russia, a tributary of the Moskva. It originates in the Losiny Ostrov National Park northeast of Moscow, flows through Mytishchi, enters Moscow in the Medvedkovo District and flows through the city in an irregular, meandering, generally north-south direction. The Yauza joins the Moskva River in Tagansky District just west of Tagansky Hill, now marked by the Kotelnicheskaya Embankment tower. Valleys of the Yauza, from the MKAD beltway in the north to the Moscow-Yaroslavl railway west of Sokolniki Park, are protected as natural reserves. The Yauza has been mentioned in Russian chronicles since 1156; the exact origin of the name is unknown. Moscow crossed its former natural eastern boundary (marked by the Yauza) in the beginning of the 16th century. The banks of the Yauza within the Garden Ring were densely urbanized by the middle of the 17th century; upstream valleys housed suburban residences of the House of Romanov, from Mikhail to Catherine II. Settlements along the Yauza (German Quarter, Lefortovo, Preobrazhenskoye) played a significant role in the history of Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street (Herzen Street from 1920 to 1993) is a street in the Central Administrative District of Moscow. It passes from Manezhnaya Square to Kudrinskaya Square, and lies between Tverskaya Street and Vozdvizhenka, parallel to them. The numbering of houses begins from Manezhnaya Square. In 1920, in connection with the 50th anniversary of the death of the writer and revolutionary democrat Alexander Herzen, it was renamed as Herzen Street. In 1993, the historical name was returned to the street. In 1997, the main part of the buildings of the street from the Nikitsky Gate Square to the Garden Ring was included in the Povarskaya-Bolshaya Nikitskaya protected area.
Zemlyanoy Val in Moscow (Russian: Земляной вал) is a line of fortifications that existed on the site of the present Garden Ring from 1593 to 1830. It served as the boundary of Zemlyanoy Gorod and defended it from external attacks. It was first built from 1592 to 1593 under Feodor I of Russia and covered only the northern part of the city, without Zamoskvorechye. It represented an earthen rampart with a moat in front and wooden fortifications. The fortifications were burned by the Poles in 1611. It was renewed and elongated from 1638 to 1641. Under Alexis of Russia, it also defended Zamoskvorechye. Zemlyanoy Val was dismantled at the end of the 18th century on the orders of Zakhar Chernyshyov.
Kolomenskoye (Russian: Коло́менское) is a former royal estate situated several kilometers to the southeast of the city center of Moscow, Russia, on the ancient road leading to the town of Kolomna (hence the name). The 390 hectare scenic area overlooks the steep banks of the Moskva River. It became a part of Moscow in the 1960s.
Prospect Mira (Russian: Проспект Мира, “Avenue of Peace” or “Avenue of the World”) is a major arterial avenue in the north-east of Moscow. Until 1957, different sections of the avenue were named 1st Meschanskaya Street, Trinity Highway, Great Alekseevskaya Street, Great Rostokinskiy Street and Yaroslavl Highway. Today, it is one of the longest Moscow arteries, measuring 8.9 kilometres (5.5 mi) in length. It is located in the Sukharev area and is a continuation of Sretenka and Yenisei Streets, linking the Garden Ring near Sklifosovsky Hospital to the Moscow MKAD ring road extension of the M8 expressway.
Povarskaya Street (Russian: Поварская улица), known from 1924-1991 as Vorovsky Street (улица Воровского), is a radial street in the center of Moscow, Russia, connecting Arbat Square on Boulevard Ring with Kudrinskaya Square on the Garden Ring. It is known informally as Moscow’s Embassy Row, and is home to the finest mansions built in the 1890s and 1900s. Povarskaya Street also houses the Supreme Court of Russia and the Gnessin State Musical College. Most of Povarskaya Street lies in the Arbat District; its northern side near Kudrinskaya Square is administered by the Presnensky District.
Leningradsky Prospekt (Russian: Ленингра́дский проспе́кт), or Leningrad Avenue, is a major arterial avenue in Moscow, Russia. It continues the path of Tverskaya Street and 1st Tverskaya-Yamskaya Street north-west from Belorussky Rail Terminal, and changes the name once again to Leningrad Highway past the Sokol metro station. The Highway continues its way to Saint Petersburg via Tver (not unlike Moskovsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg, which is named after, and leads to, Moscow). Until 1957, Leningradsky Prospekt was part of Leningrad Highway (Petersburg Highway prior to 1924). Both avenues retain their Lenin-related names after the reinstatement of the historical Saint Petersburg name.